Forests store most of the world’s terrestrial carbon and play an important role in regulating its climate. While having the potential to absorb global carbon emissions, the removal of forests is also the greatest source of greenhouse gas emissions in many developing countries, particularly Brazil and Indonesia (Dutschke, 2007). While the potential implications of forest management for the global greenhouse gas budget has been recognized since the late 1970s, international negotiations surrounding the role that forests can play in both mitigation and adaptation to climate change remain contentious (Dutschke, 2007; Freer-Smith et al., 2007; Jung et al., 2007). As the countries of the world look towards 2012 and the post-Kyoto process, this book provides the reader with a timely addition to the discussion of current climate policies involving forests. Furthermore, it provides valuable insights from practical experience to offer a way forward in emerging climate policy frameworks of the future.